Kairos 19.3
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At Symbol References


ALS Association. (2014). The ALS Association expresses sincere gratitude to over three million donors. [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.alsa.org/news/media/press-releases/ice-bucket-challenge-082914.html

Arola, Kristin, & Wysocki, Anne (Eds.) (2012). Composing [media] = composing [embodiment]: Bodies, technologies, writing and the teaching of writing. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press.

Asen, Robert. (2002). Imagining in the public sphere. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 35(4), 345-67.

Ball, C.E. (2004). Show, not tell: The value of new media scholarship. Computers and Composition, 21, 403-425.

Bond, Robert M., Fariss, Christopher J., Jones, Jason J., Kramer, Adam D. I., Marlow, Cameron, Settle, Jaime E., & Fowler, James H. (2012). A 61-million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization. Nature, 489(7415), 295-298. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11421

Boulianne, Shelley. (2009). Does Internet use affect engagement? A meta-analysis of research. Political Communication, 26(2), 193-211.

Breuer, Anita, & Farooq, Bilal. (2012). Online political participation: Slacktivism or efficiency increased activism? Evidence from the Brazilian Ficha Limpa Campaign. Paper presented at the 2012 ICA Annual Conference, San Francisco. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2179035

CCNY Rebels. (n.d.). The struggle for free speech at CCNY, 1931-42. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.virtualny.cuny.edu/gutter/panels/panel5.html

Civil resistance 2.0: 198 nonviolent methods upgraded. (2014). Digital activism research project [data file]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AjKkO3odnjoedG5SckUtU1AtYnFVdm40T21nRDJGS2c#gid=1

Deans, Thomas, Roswell, Barbara, & Wurr, Adrian J. (Eds.). (2010). Writing and community engagement: A critical sourcebook. Boston, MA: Bedford St. Martin’s.

Flower, Linda. (2008). Community literacy and the rhetoric of public engagement. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Gladwell, Malcolm. (2010). Small change: Why the revolution won’t be tweeted. The New Yorker. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/10/04/101004fa_fact_gladwell

Grabill, Jeffrey T. (2007). Writing community change: Designing technologies for citizen action. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press.

Hannity, Sean (Host), Malkin, Michelle (Panelist), & Williams, Juan (Panelist). (June 13, 2012). Juan Williams slams Michelle Malkin [Television series episode]. New York, NY: FNC.

Hauser, Gerard A. (1998). Civil society and the principle of the public sphere. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 31(1), 19-40.

Hawisher, Gail, & Selfe, Cynthia. (2012). Studying literacy in digital contexts: Computers and composition studies. In K. Ritter & P. K. Matsuda (Eds.), Exploring Composition Studies: Sites, Issues, and Perspectives (188-198). Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press.

Hocks, Mary. (2003). Understanding visual rhetoric in digital writing environments. College Composition and Communication, 54(4), 629-656.

InfoSec Institute. (2012). Cyberterrorism defined (as distinct from “cybercrime”). Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://resources.infosecinstitute.com/cyberterrorism-distinct-from-cybercrime/

Joyce, Mary, Howard, Philip N., & Rosas, Antonio. (2013). Global digital activism data set version 1.0: Coded cases. Digital Activism Research Project. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://digital-activism.org/projects/gdads/

Lasica, J. D. (2008). Civic engagement on the move: How mobile media can serve the public good. Washington, D.C.: The Aspen Institute. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/cands/Civic_Engagement_on_the_Move.pdf

Li, Xiang. (2013). Hacktivism and the first amendment: Drawing the line between cyber protests and crime. Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, 27(1), 301-330.

Lievrouw, Leah A. (2011). Alternative and activist new media. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Livingston, Geoff. (2011, May 15). How to: Monitor the Gulf oil spill using social media. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://mashable.com/2010/05/15/social-media-oil-spill/

Ludlow, Peter. (2013, January 13). What is a hacktivist? [N.Y. Times Opinionator Blog] Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/13/what-is-a-hacktivist

Mascheroni, Giovanna. (2012). Online participation: New forms of civic and political engagement or just new opportunities for networked individualism. In Brian D. Loader and Dan Mercea (Eds.), Social media and democracy: Innovations in participatory politics (pp. 207-223). New York: Routledge.

Masnick, Mike. (2013, January 11). Anonymous launches White House petition saying DDoS should be recognized as a valid form of protest. Tech Dirt. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20130111/08053821642/anonymous-launches-white-house-petition-saying-ddos-should-be-recognized-as-valid-form-protest.shtm

Osgood, Josiah. (2006). Eloquence under the Triumvirs. The American Journal of Philology, 127(4), 525-551.

Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Rainie, Lee, Smith, Aaron, Scholzman, Kay Lehman, Brady, Henry, & Verba, Sidney. (2012). Social media and political engagement. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2012/10/19/social-media-and-political-engagement/

Schmidt, Christopher W. (2010). The sit-ins and the State Action Doctrine. William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, 18(3), 767-829.

Sharp, Gene. (2005). Waging nonviolent struggle: 20th century practice and 21st century potential. Boston, MA: Porter Sargent.

Shipka, Jody. (2011). Toward a composition made whole. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Smith, Aaron. (2014). Civic engagement in the digital age. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/04/25/civic-engagement-in-the-digital-age/

Smith, Aaron, & Duggan, Maeve. (2013). Online dating and relationships. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/10/21/online-dating-relationships/

Stanley, Nigel. (2010). The truth behind cybercrime, cyberwarfare, cyberterrorism and hacktivism. Bloor Research. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.bloorresearch.com/analysis/11652/cybercrime-cyberwars-cyberterrorism-and-hacktivism-part-.html

Storck, Madeline. (2011). The role of social media in political mobilisation: A case study of the January 2011 Egyptian uprising. MA thesis. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/academy/content/pdf/participant-papers/2012-02-bifef/The_Role_of_Social_Media_in_Political_Mobilisation_-_Madeline_Storck.pdf

Sullivan, Danny. (2014). New record for 2014: Hashtags mentioned in 57% of Super Bowl ads. Marketingland.com. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://marketingland.com/hashtags-super-bowl-2014-72658

That’s not democracy: How out-of-school youth engage in civic life and what stands in their way. (2012). CIRCLE: The Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement. Tufts University. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.civicyouth.org/thats-not-democracy-how-out-of-school-youth-engage-in-civic-life-and-what-stands-in-their-way/

The DoSomething.org index on young people and volunteering. (2012). Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.brivpratigais.lv/attachments/article/393/2012%20do%20somethingorg.pdf

Vie, Stephanie. (2014). In defense of “slacktivism”: The Human Rights Campaign Facebook logo as digital activism. First Monday, 19(4). Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/4961/3868

Walker, Brian K. (2014). Retail in crisis: These are the changes brick-and-mortar stores must make. Forbes.com. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/jeremybogaisky/2014/02/12/retail-in-crisis-these-are-the-changes-brick-and-mortar-stores-must-make/

Warner, Michael. (2005). Publics and counterpublics. New York, NY: Zone Books.

Warnick, Barbara, & Heineman, David S. (2012). Rhetoric online: The politics of new media (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

What is Clicktivism? (n.d.). Clicktivist.org. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.clicktivist.org/what-is-clicktivism/

Wilson, Clay. (2005). Computer attack and cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and policy issues for Congress [Congressional Research Service Report for Congress]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.iwar.org.uk/cyberterror/resources/crs/45184.pdf

Wysocki, Anne, Johnson-Eilola, Johndan, Selfe, Cynthia, & Sirc, Geoffrey. (Eds.) (2004). Writing new media: Theory and applications for expanding the teaching of composition. Logan: Utah State University Press.

Zickuhr, Kathryn. (2013). Who’s not online and why? Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/09/25/whos-not-online-and-why/

Media Credits

America is a Christian nation said no founding father ever [Online image]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://i.imgur.com/YdAOpjb.jpg

Diamante, Vincent. (2008, February 10). Anonymous at Scientology in Los Angeles Sony dsc [Online image]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/sklathill/2255718951/

Enoc vt. (2012, October 8). Botón me gusta [Online image]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AFacebook_like_thumb.png

Fredericson, Ben [xjrlokix]. (2009, September 18). Guy Fawkes mask [Online image]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AGuy_Fawkes_Mask.jpg

Hannity, Sean (Host), Malkin, Michelle (Panelist), & Williams, Juan (Panelist). (June 13, 2012). Juan Williams slams Michelle Malkin [Television series episode]. New York, NY: FNC. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://video.foxnews.com/v/1688176918001/juan-williams-slams-michelle-malkin-im-a-real-reporter-not-a-blogger/?#sp=show-clips

Invisible Obama [Online image]. (2012). Retrieved May 15, 2015, from http://media.nj.com/entertainment_impact/photo/11507436-large.jpg

Lady Gaga [Screen name]. (2010, September 17). A message from Lady Gaga to the Senate Sept 16 2010 [Video file]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://youtu.be/GG5VK2lquEc

McIntosh, Jonathan. (2005, September 8). RNC 04 protest 89 [Online Image]. Retreived March 15, 2015, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RNC_04_protest_89.jpg#globalusage

Melissa Harris Perry tampon fail [Online image]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://memecrunch.com/meme/ORTR/melissa-harris-perry-tampon-fail/image.png

Oakley, Corey. (2013, May 15). "No cuts" student protest [Online Image]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/coreyoakley/9724900314/in/set-72157635481610978/

Romney women binder [Online image]. (2012). Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://mariopiperni.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Romney_Women-Binder.jpg

Sarmiento, Eric James. (2013, August 26). Traditional and social media covers the first major protest since President Aquino took office [Online image]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/jamessarmiento/9608716974/in/photolist-7ftCH1-7fpLok-9eApBa-9eApw4-9eDwv1-9eAqRi-9eDwbf-9eDvtS-9eAq28-9eAp78-9eDwzY-9eDwqG-9eApMc-9eDwG9-9eApX2-9eDwKY-9eAoXz-9eDvdm-9eApSa-9eApFF-9eDvnw-9eDv4w-9eDwVL-9eDw5W-9TPgLw-9TPgVu-9TPgQY-audzig-awA8eF-fCNBfZ-adEryN-aoTASp-eS1Shs-7fpLvt-7fpLrZ-dkWYbt-eRPr1T-5wAJph-9eJZyv-8sfdZa-6gWZji-eS1Smb-eRPqPt-eS1Ss3-eS1SQb-5ffLeH-fD6bN3-9yAoTa-6beXh5-8dKoM1

The Egyptian Liberal. (2011, April 12). Infobox collage for MENA protests [Online image]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Infobox_collage_for_MENA_protests.PNG

The Official CTBTO Photostream. (2000, November 15). Communication systems at Hydroacoustic Station HA08 [Online image]. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Communication_systems_at_Hydroacoustic_Station_HA08.jpg